The board-foot is a specialized unit of measure for the volume of lumber in the United States and Canada. It is the volume of a one-foot length of a board one foot wide and one inch thick.
Board-foot can be abbreviated FBM (for "foot, board measure"), BDFT, or BF.
One board-foot equals:
- 1 ft × 1 ft × 1 in
- 12 in × 12 in × 1 in
- 30.48 cm × 30.48 cm × 2.54 cm
- 144 in3
- 1/12 ft3
- 2360 cm3
- 2.360 liters
- 0.002360 cubic meters or steres
The expression Cold Chain refers to the preservation of freezed products at a constant temperature same or lower than -18°C during the whole journey from production to sale, including all stages of transport, storage and display.
A composite is a material made of two or more simple materials. The whole is a product able to assure very particular characteristics, usually joining the advantages of very different materials (e.g. putting together great mechanical properties with lightness).
In physics, cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below −150 °C, −238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. In this website we talk of "cryogenic" mainly to refer particularly to the sector of production/liquefaction of natural gas (LNG)
Epoxy, also known as polyepoxide, is a thermosetting polymer formed from reaction of an epoxide "resin" with polyamine "hardener". Epoxy has a wide range of applications, including fiber-reinforced plastic materials and general purpose adhesives. The process of polymerization can be controlled through temperature, choice of resin and hardener compounds, and the ratio of said compounds; the process can take minutes to hours. Some formulations benefit from heating during the cure period, whereas others simply require time, and ambient temperatures.
FFOAM IN PLACE
Foam-in-place is another method of using polyurethane foams. Package cushioning is used to help protect fragile items during shipment. Polyurethane foams fill the box, fully encapsulating the product to immobilize it. It is also used to form engineered structures.
Chemical compound designed and developed to have particular characteristics o a particular result
HVAC is an acronym that stands for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning
HVACR is an acronym that stands for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, Refrigeration
Technique consisting in injecting liquids within something. In this website it specifically refers to the technique of injecting polyol and isocyanate in particular cavities to obtain a reaction inside a structure, e.g. a panel.
With the term isocyanate we indicate an organic compound which contains a functional group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen). Isocyanate have a great importance in the chemistry of polymers as, together with polyols, they originate a reaction resulting in polyurethane.
With the term Jet grouting we define the operation of injection in soil of a blend of concrete or polyurethane or other in order to consolidate foundations groud
LLNG - LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS
Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted temporarily to liquid form for ease of storage or transport.
PPIR - POLYISOCYANURATE
Polyisocyanurate, also referred to as PIR, polyiso, or ISO, is essentially an improvement on polyurethane (PUR). The proportion of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is higher than for PUR and instead of a polyether polyol, a polyester derived polyol is used in the reaction. Catalysts and additives used in PIR formulations also differ from those used in PUR. This isocyanurate polymer has a relatively strong molecular structure, because of the combination of strong chemical bonds, the ring structure of isocyanurate and high cross link density, each contributing to the greater stiffness than found in comparable polyurethanes. The greater bond strength also means these are more difficult to break, and as a result a PIR foam is chemically and thermally more stable: breakdown of isocyanurate bonds is reported to start above 200°C, compared with urethane at 100 to 110°C. Depending on the product application greater stiffness, chemical and/or thermal stability may be desirable in an attempt to achieve optimal end use performance.
In the field of industrial chemistry, the word polymer generally indicates the synthetic macromolecules: plastic materials, synthetic rubber and textiles fibres (such as nylon) but also synthetic polymers produced by the pharmaceutical industries, cosmetics and alimentary. In this website, it generally refers to the result of the reaction between an isocyanate and a polyol, or between a resin and a hardener.
With the term polyol we indicate a chemical compound containing more hydroxyl groups. Polyols have a great importance in the chemistry of polymers as, together with isocyanates, they originate a reaction resulting in polyurethane.
A combination of a particular isocyanate and a particular polyol formulated to originate a foam with specific characteristics.
Polyurethane is a huge family of polymers in which the polimeric chain is formed by urethane links -NH-(CO)-O-. Urethane polymers are widely used in the production of great variety of materials. Polyurethanes are obtained after a reaction between a di-isocianate (aromatic or aliphatic) and a polyol (tipically a polyethylen- or polyestherglicole) , furthermore catalysts are added to improve yield of reaction and other additives that give specific features to the maetrial; particularly "surfactants" to modify the surface aspect, flame retardants and/or blowing agents.
Mechanical process which erodes the most superficial part of a material by abrasion due to a jet of sand and air. Sandblasting is the most valid method of preparation of metal surfaces prior to application of a paint or a protective coating.
A sandwich panel or sandwich structured composite is a special class of composite materials that is fabricated by attaching two thin but stiff skins to a lightweight but thick core. The core material is normally low strength material, but its higher thickness provides the sandwich composite with high bending stiffness with overall low density. The core is bonded to the skins with an adhesive.
Structural adhesives are chemical substances able to bond two materials in a "structural" way, that is to say that their union is able to bear great mechanical efforts and replace the traditional junction methods with remarkable technological advantages.
Thixotropy is the property of certain gels or fluids that are thick (viscous) under normal conditions, but flow (become thin, less viscous) over time when shaken, agitated, or otherwise stressed. However, this is not a universal definition; the term is sometimes applied to pseudoplastic fluids without a viscosity/time component. Many gels and colloids are thixotropic materials, exhibiting a stable form at rest but becoming fluid when agitated.
Polyurethane in colloquial language